2009: Soil Organisms
By these standards, a vulture breaking an egg by hitting it with a stone uses a tool, but a gull dropping an egg on a rock does not. This distinction between true and borderline (or proto-tool) cases has been criticized for its arbitrariness and anthropocentrism.
We draw attention to the high degree of inconsistency among empirical findings relating interindividual variation in innovativeness to interindividual variation in learning performance. We go on to propose a model that reconciles the possible (but perhaps controversial) existence of positive associations between cognition and innovation at the cross-taxon level with inconsistent associations at the within-species level.
Comparisons between myriapod assemblages at mine sites in Upper and Lower Lusatia that had different soil and age conditions revealed that myriapods are good indicators of biological soil quality and are reliable and easy to use. Using soil sampling and subsequent heat extraction of animals, four alder stands in the wetlands of the Biebrza, Narew and BiaÂ³owieÅœa national parks, north-eastern Poland, were surveyed for millipedes and centipedes. Among 12 millipede species revealed, Xestoiulus laeticollis, Polydesmus complanatus and Craspedosoma rawlinsii occurred and predominated in all alder woods.
Especially at sites that passed three investigations already, major changes become discernible. If the temporal variation goes in the same direction throughout the time series, it is considered a trend.
Manakin displays vary across species in terms of behavioural complexity, differing in number of unique motor elements, production of mechanical sounds, cooperation between displaying males, and construction of the display site. Historically, research emphasis has been placed on neurological specializations for vocal aspects of courtship, and less is known about the control of physical, non-vocal displays. By examining brain evolution in relation to extreme acrobatic feats such as manakin displays, we can vastly expand our knowledge of how sexual selection acts on motor behaviour.
We tested the hypothesis that sexual selection for complex motor displays has selected for larger brains across the Pipridae. We found that display complexity positively predicts relative brain weight (adjusted for body size) after controlling for phylogeny in 12 manakin species and a closely related flycatcher. This evidence suggests that brain size has evolved in response to sexual selection to facilitate aspects of display such as motor, sensorimotor, perceptual, and cognitive abilities. We show, for the first time, that sexual selection for acrobatic motor behaviour can drive brain size evolution in avian species and, in particular, a family of suboscine birds. Â© 2015 S.
We show here that relative size of the neostriatum and whole brain distinguish the true and borderline categories in birds using tools to obtain food or water. From two sources, the specialized literature on tools and an innovation data base gathered in the short note sections of 68 journals in 7 areas of the world, we collected 39 true (e.g. use of probes, hammers, sponges, scoops) and 86 borderline (e.g. bait fishing, battering and dropping on anvils, holding with wedges and skewers) cases of tool use in 104 species from 15 parvorders. True tool users have a larger mean residual brain size (regressed against body weight) than do users of borderline tools, confirming the distinction in the literature. In multiple regressions, residual brain size and residual size of the neostriatum (one of the areas in the avian telencephalon thought to be equivalent to the mammalian neocortex) are the best predictors of true tool use reports per taxon.
Soil zoological investigations at soil monitoring sites are carried out with the objective to track changes in the soilâ€™s habitat function. At 60 soil-monitoring sites in north-western Germany, earthworms and microannelids (enchytraeids, tubificids and polychaetes) are currently being used as system indicators for the soil biota. Investigations started 1992, followed by re-investigations every 5 to 10 years. Variations in abundance, biomass and species number of annelids are assessed with respect to nondirectional fluctuations or directional changes, caused by natural variations of environmental factors or due to management practices. The sites are grouped according to land-use type and site condition into six different categories for which typical ranges of variation of the zoological parameters can be distinguished (reference ranges).
When a value shifts substantially out of its reference range, a change of the system state is probable, especially if this applies for two or more parameters simultaneously. Three examples are given for considerable changes of the annelid community due to land-use change or natural succession. The detection of substantial changes of the community is based mainly on the species composition, but is supported by quantitative parameters using the reference ranges.
The centipede fauna was very poor, altogether represented by four species, only Lithobius curtipes being shared by all sites. The myriapod communities from the swampy alder woods (Ribeso nigri Alnetum) at Biebrza and in the BiaÂ³owieÅœa Primeval Forest were mainly under the influence of fertility soil parameters (available and total phosphorus contents) while the assemblage from an alder swamp at Narew was largely affected by soil humidity. Apparently, the community from an ash-alder alluvial wood (Fraxino-Alnetum) sampled in the BiaÂ³owieÅœa Primeval Forest mostly depended on soil pH. Comparing all available information, the structure of myriapod assemblages seems to be quite similar even over distant regions in Central Europe.
Diagnostic Guide for Evaluating Surface Distortions in Veneered Furniture and Cabinetry
A key component of the model is the possibility that the association between cognition (ie, brain size) and innovativeness is not causal. Rather, it arises as a consequence of correlated evolution because both cognition and diet generalism evolve in response to environmental variability.
Furthermore, motor diversity constitutes a proximate link between diet generalism and innovativeness. Acrobatic display behaviour is sexually selected in manakins (Pipridae) and can place high demands on many neural systems.
Karger AG, Basel. A further intensive study was made with millipedes and centipedes which need – like earthworms – a longer time for immigration.