3.7: The Effect of pH on Enzyme Kinetics

A person without a spleen is more susceptible to infections and may need supplementary antibiotic therapy for the rest of their life. Secondary Lymphatic OrgansThe secondary lymphatic organs also play an important role in the immune system as they are places where lymphocytes find and bind with antigens This is followed by the proliferation and activation of lymphocytes. The secondary organs include the spleen, lymph nodes, tonsils, Peyer’s patches, and the appendix.

This process requires a lot of energy in the form of adenosine triphosphate (ATP), the chemical compound mostly used as energy in the majority of animal cells. Oxygen allows humans to metabolize (burn) fuel (food), creating energy.

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In active transport a special transport protein in the cell membrane picks up the useful particle on one side of the membrane. The transport protein then rotates through the membrane and releases the particle on the other side of the membrane. Active transport is used to move substances into and out of cells. Cells which carry out a lot of active transport often have lots of mitochondria to give them the energy they need.

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Also produces hydrochloric acid to kill bacteria and the right PH for the protease enzyme to work PH 2The pancreas produces and releases protease lipase and amylase enzyme into the small intestine. dissolves other materials & allows them to flow (in blood), gives cells structure, allows food to digest & pass through intestinal walls into bloodstream, carries waste products out of the body (in urine), help send electrical message, regulates homeostasis of body temperature, lubricates structures, protective barrier around organs.

T lymphocytes cells help with all components of the immune system, including cell elimination by killer T cells and maintaining roles by helper and suppressor T cells. Although the specific mechanisms of activation vary slightly between different types of T cells, the “two-signal model” in CD4+ T cells holds true for most. ‘Natural Killer T cells”’ (NKT cells) are a special kind of lymphocyte that bridges the adaptive immune system with the innate immune system.

In addition, the recipient is placed on immuno-suppressing drugs to try and prevent the immune system from attacking and rejecting the new organ or tissue. The foreign antigen can be presented to the B cell directly, but usually macrophages and T cell lymphocytes (helper T cells) interact with B cells as Antigen Presenting Cells to bring about antibody production. Upon such an encounter, the B cell’s receptors will bind to the antigen.

We classify these into three broad categories; autoimmunity, immunodeficiencies, and hypersensitivities. 2. Upon reexposure, the body reacts more strongly and rapidly. The allergen binds to IgE already present on mast cells, triggering the immediate release of histamine, cytokines, and other mediators that cause allergic symptoms.

3.7: The Effect of pH on Enzyme Kinetics

In passive immunity you are not presenting the body with foreign antigens. Defending the body against intracellular pathogens is the role of T lymphocytes, which carry out cell-mediated immunity(CMI). Macrophages phagocytize invading microbes and present parts of the microbe (antigens) to the T cell lymphocytes. While most of the B cells remain in the lymphatic system, the antibodies are secreted into the lymph fluid which then enters into the blood plasma to circulate throughout the body.

An allergy is an inflammatory immune response to a nonpathogenic antigen. Left alone, the antigen is not harmful to the body, but if someone is sensitive to the antigen, the body produces an inflammatory response designed to get rid of it. Allergic inflammatory responses can range from mild tissue damage to fatal reactions. Therefore your immune system will not need to use B cells, and we know that if the B cells are never introduced your body isn’t making antibodies and it isn’t making memory B cells. The transfer of antibodies from mother to fetus across the placenta is one example.

Anything that can trigger the immune response is called an antigen. An antigen can be a microbe such as a virus, or even a part of a microbe. Tissues of cells from another person also carry nonself markers and act as antigens. This explains why tissue transplants can be rejected.

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