Bullies and victims at school: Are they the same pupils?
Bully-victims are particularly at risk of remaining involved in bullying over longer periods. Also, children involved in bullying often have psychiatric problems and are disturbed. Being bullied seems to be widespread in schools in New South Wales and is associated with increased psychosomatic symptoms and poor mental health. Health practitioners evaluating students with common psychological and psychosomatic symptoms should consider bullying and the student’s school environment as potential causes. In the correlational analyses, both victimisation and social neglect are shown to be related to internalising coping, whereas bullying is associated with externalising coping and with a lack of problem-solving.
Although the cause and consequences of peer victimization may include underlying, age-invariant processes, the manifestation of these factors is, in part, driven by the developmental stage being studied. Thus, a comprehensive understanding of peer victimization requires an explicit developmental perspective. This paper examines how peer victimization in adolescence is unique from other developmental periods. Changes in the nature of peer victimization, associated risk factors, the contexts in which victimization is experienced, and the psychosocial outcomes affected are addressed. A primary focus is how maturational processes and interpersonal contexts characteristic of adolescence contribute to changes in victimization, with the objective of informing future research directions and the development of effective interventions.
Higher self-efficacy was associated with better HRQOL. Self-efficacy contributed significantly to predicting variation in HRQOL. Conclusions Being involved in bullying, as a victim or a bully, is associated with lower HRQOL. The association between GSE and HRQOL indicates that self-efficacy might be a resource for increasing HRQOL among adolescents. Our findings highlight the importance of targeting self-efficacy beliefs as an intervention strategy to improve GSE and HRQOL in adolescents involved in bullying.
The methodology is based on the concept that we can learn about model performance by comparing the simulation results with observational data available for time periods other than the period originally targeted. An ensemble of model results relating to ozone concentrations in Europe in 2010 has been produced and studied. The novelty consists in the fact that the ensemble is made of results of models working at two different scales (regional and global), therefore contributing in detail two different parts of the atmospheric spectrum.
The model performance is much improved at 12â€‰h durations. Projected future increases scale with seasonal mean temperature change, within a range from a few percent to over 10 percent per degree Celsius. Studies have shown that adolescentsâ€™ involvement in bullying (as perpetrators, victims, or both) is related to more negative outcomes than noninvolvement, and a small subset of studies has connected bullying to the specific outcome of gang involvement.
The Bureau of Meteorology Atmospheric Regional Reanalysis for Australia (BARRA) is the first regional reanalysis for Australia, NZ, and SE Asia. It offers realistic depictions of near-surface meteorology at a scale required for emergency services, defence, and other major sectors such as energy and agriculture.
In this study, we use Global Positioning System (GPS) radio occultation (RO) temperature data from 2006 to 2014 to characterize the inter-seasonal and interannual variability of temperature biases in the lower stratosphere. Results from this study also demonstrate the feasibility to use RO data to correct RAOB temperature biases for different sensor types. While it is widely recognized that air pollutants adversely affect human health and climate change, their impacts on the regional carbon balance are less well understood. We apply an Earth system model to quantify the combined effects of ozone and aerosol particles on net primary production in China.
Historical time series are unique sources of information for past climate and atmospheric composition change. The 82-year time series of visibility data collected at the National Observatory of Athens (NOA) was an excellent proxy for the long-term evolution of particulate pollution in the eastern Mediterranean, at times when direct aerosol measurements were missing. Evolution of particulate pollution of both local and regional origin is nicely reflected on visibility records of NOA.
- Due to computational limitations, climate models cannot fully resolve the laws of physics below a certain scale – a large source of errors and uncertainty.
- Data from the 2013/2014 Health Behaviour in School-Aged Children study on 10,279 11-, 13-, and 15-year-old Czech adolescents (49.2% boys) were used.
- Multiple logistic and linear regression analyses were applied.
On suicidal thoughts, the mean score for bullies was above that of the victims, but this differencewas not significant. Girls had significantly higher mean scores than boys on both depressive symptoms and suicidal thoughts. This was the case for all pupils, and for victims, bullies and the neutral pupils. Questions of causality between depressive symptoms, suicidal thoughts and involvement in bullying are discussed and research on this issue is suggested. As part of a survey service developed to assess bullying in schools, anonymous questionnaires were given to over 6,000 pupils in 17 junior/middle and seven secondary schools in the Sheffield LEA. The results are analysed in terms of frequencies of being bullied, and bullying others; year differences; gender differences; types of bullying; where bullying occurs; whether teachers and parents are informed; and attitudes to bullying.
Bullies and victims at school: Are they the same pupils?
The students also completed a measure of mental health, the General Health Questionnaire, and answered questions to assess their frequency of physical complaints and perceived consequences of adverse treatment by peers at school. In general, peer- victimized girls reported a higher incidence of emotional distress and more perceived adverse health effects. Compared with ‘others’ , victims of both sexes indicated significantly worse mental and physical health. Among boys only, bullies consistently reported poorer health. Explanations for health effects and reported gender differences are discussed in relation to the consequences of stress engendered by peer victimization at school as well as suggested differences in the nature and implications of bullying behaviours employed by boys and girls.
As part of the Past Global Changes (PAGES) working group on Quaternary Interglacials, we propose a protocol to perform transient simulations of the penultimate deglaciation for the Paleoclimate Modelling Intercomparison Project (PMIP4). This design includes time-varying changes in orbital forcing, greenhouse gas concentrations, continental ice sheets as well as freshwater input from the disintegration of continental ice sheets. Key paleo-records for model-data comparison are also included. The exchange of energy between the Earth surface and the atmosphere is governed by turbulent processes which form the convective boundary layer (CBL) in daytime. The representation of the CBL in atmospheric models is critical, e.g., for the simulation of clouds and precipitation.
The Thermodynamic Diagnostic Tool (TheDiaTo v1.0) is a collection of diagnostics for the study of the thermodynamics of the climate system in climate models. This is fundamental in order to understand where the imbalances affecting climate projections come from and also to allow for easy comparison of different scenarios and atmospheric regimes. The tool is currently being developed for the assessment of models that are part of the next phase of the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP). We have developed an openly accessible web-based platform for visualization and promotion of easy access to one-dimensional hydrodynamic lake model output data updated in near-real time (simstrat.eawag.ch). This platform was developed for 54 lakes in Switzerland, with potential for adaptation to other regional areas or even at a global worldwide scale using appropriate forcing input data.
The decrease in the bullying scores was significant after the group intervention. This work presents advancements of the BCC model transition from CMIP5 to CMIP6, especially in the model resolution and its physics. Compared with BCC CMIP5 models, the BCC CMIP6 model shows significant improvements in historical simulations in many aspects including tropospheric air temperature and circulation at global and regional scales in East Asia, climate variability at different timescales (QBO, MJO, and diurnal cycle of precipitation), and the long-term trend of global air temperature. Many climate models have difficulties in properly reproducing climate extremes such as heat wave conditions. We use a regional climate model with different atmospheric physics schemes to simulate the heat wave events of 2003 in western Europe and 2010 in Russia.
Results from regression analyses employing multi-item measures of (i) victimisation and (ii) bullying others, independently predicted students reporting feeling less safe, after controlling for gender and grade level. Students reporting relatively high levels of pro-social behaviour also reported significantly higher level of safety. Implication of these findings for increasing the safety of students in the UAE schools are discussed. Obesity represents a serious risk to adolescent health and well-being, both physically and psychologically. If becoming a victim of traditional bullying mediates (specifically exacerbates) the level of physical and psychological distress among obese and overweight adolescents, health professionals need to focus on raising awareness of the importance of weight-based victimization for children and adolescents with obesity.