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In most studies this reduced growth is attributed to an energy drain by the fungus. Fungi producing large amounts of fungal tissue are more energy consuming than species which only develop a sparse mycelium.
Cosmopolitan in distribution, several hundred taxa are currently recognized which collectively play an important role as late-stage ECM colonizers of woody trees and shrubs found in arctic, montane, temperate and tropical ecosystems. Because of their high degree of host specificity, fastidious in vitro growth requirements, and their role as late-stage ECM colonizers, species of Lactarius have not been examined intensively by ECM researchers.
Detailed information is lacking on the colonization and development of ECM on host root systems, and the subsequent physiology and ecology of the host-fungus symbiosis. This chapter attempts to summarize current knowledge in order to present a starting point for further studies on members of this important genus. Several weeds such as the bindweeds Convolvulus arvensis and Calystegia sepium, which belong to the economically most important weeds, are difficult to control with conventional physical and chemical methods.
The model flaps downward for generating the lift force and backward for generating the thrust force. Although the model can go upward against the gravity by the generated lift force, the model generates the nose-up torque, consequently gets off-balance.
In the day-flying moth family Castniidae (“butterfly -moths”), which includes some important crop pests, no pheromones have been found so far. Using a multidisciplinary approach we described the steps involved in the courtship of P. archon, showing that visual cues are the only ones used for mate location; showed that the morphology and fine structure of the antennae of this moth are strikingly similar to those of butterflies , with male sensilla apparently not suited to detect female-released long range pheromones; showed that its females lack pheromone-producing glands, and identified three compounds as putative male sex pheromone (MSP) components of P. archon, released from the proximal halves of male forewings and hindwings. This study provides evidence for the first time in Lepidoptera that females of a moth do not produce any pheromone to attract males, and that mate location is achieved only visually by patrolling males, which may release a pheromone at short distance, putatively a mixture of Z,E-farnesal, E,E-farnesal, and (E,Z)-2,13-octadecadienol.
CO2 and winter temperature effects on white birch
platyphylla var. japonica can hardly regenerate in it.
Serpentine soil is distributed throughout Japan and is characterized by excessive Mg and heavy metals (Ni, Cr, and Co) which can lead to suppressed plant growth. We examined the tolerance of the two Betula species by planting seedlings in serpentine and non-serpentine (brown forest) soils. The dry mass of each organ was suppressed in both birches planted in serpentine soil, and the photosynthetic rate was reduced by accumulation of Ni. Also, uptakes of K and Ca were inhibited by accumulation of Mg, Ni, Cr and Co. B.
Our results provide a reconstruction of the speciation continuum across the H. erato clade and provide insights into the processes that drive genomic divergence during speciation, establishing the H. erato clade as a powerful framework for the study of speciation.
We used artificial selection on a laboratory model butterfly , B. anynana, to evolve violet scales from UV brown scales and compared the mechanism of violet color production with that of two other Bicyclus species, Bicyclus sambulos and Bicyclus medontias, which have evolved violet/blue scales independently via natural selection. The UV reflectance peak of B. anynana brown scales shifted to violet over six generations of artificial selection (i.e., in less than 1 y) as the result of an increase in the thickness of the lower lamina in ground scales. Similar scale structures and the same mechanism for producing violet/blue structural colors were found in the other Bicyclus species.
The biological activity tests of fungal IAA showed that it can simulate coleoptile elongation, and increase seed germination and root length of tested plants. In addition, the metal tolerance and solubilizing activities varied for different minerals and fungal species.
Under the low copper treatment, infection with mycorrhizal fungi did not affect seedling growth. The potential role of iron and phosphorus in affecting host metal tolerance was investigated. Changes in the tissue concentrations of these elements did not relate to the effect of the fungi on metal tolerance.