These chemicals can cause the ring of muscle that separates your oesophagus from your stomach to relax, causing acid reflux. If your GP thinks that your indigestion symptoms may be caused by another underlying medical condition, you may need to have some further tests to rule this out.
A person, and sometimes large numbers of people (in which case an outbreak of illness is called an epidemic), can also become infected by eating food or drinking water that has been contaminated by infected stool. Most foods can be contaminated with bacteria and cause gastroenteritis if not cooked thoroughly or pasteurized. Contaminated water is sometimes ingested in unexpected ways, such as when swimming in a pond contaminated by stool from an animal or in a swimming pool contaminated by stool from another person. In some cases, gastroenteritis is acquired through direct contact with animals that carry the infectious microorganism.
A second major functional disease is the irritable bowel syndrome, or IBS. The symptoms of IBS are thought to originate primarily from the small intestine and/or colon.
Low levels of sodium in the blood (hyponatremia) also may develop, particularly if the person replaces lost fluids by drinking fluids that contain little or no salt, such as water and tea. Water and electrolyte imbalances are potentially serious, especially in the young, the old, and people with chronic diseases. Shock and kidney failure can occur in severe cases. Recognizing that a drug is causing gastroenteritis can be difficult.
Like oesophageal stricture, pyloric stenosis is caused by long-term irritation of the lining of your digestive system from stomach acid. Indigestion is often caused by acid reflux, which occurs when stomach acid leaks back up into your gullet (oesophagus) and irritates its lining. If this irritation builds up over time, it can cause your oesophagus to become scarred. The scarring can eventually lead to your oesophagus becoming narrow and constricted (known as oesophageal stricture). If you smoke, the chemicals you inhale in cigarette smoke may contribute to your indigestion.
Hence, diagnosis of these disorders depends even more upon how the patient describes his or her symptoms. Because of the risk of cancer, doctors typically look in the esophagus and stomach with a flexible tube (upper endoscopy) in people who are over age 55 and in younger people with warning signs. Those who are younger and have no symptoms other than dyspepsia are often treated with acid-blocking drugs. If this treatment is unsuccessful, doctors usually do an endoscopy. Delayed gastric emptying is a situation in which food remains in the stomach for an abnormally long period of time.
Eat smaller meals and reduce your fat intake to curtail indigestion and keep your LES working as it should. Reflux and nausea can occur when your stomach is too empty, so try to eat smaller and more frequent meals. People who have acid reflux often experience a sour taste in their mouth from stomach acids. The taste, along with the frequent burping and coughing associated with reflux and GERD, can create nausea and even vomiting in some cases.
In this theoretical situation, we can’t see the abnormality with the naked eye or the microscope, but we can measure it. If we can measure an associated or causative abnormality, should the disease no longer be considered functional, even though the disease (symptoms) are being caused by abnormal function?