GERD includes expenditure by business enterprises, government, higher education and private non-profit expenditure on R&D. GERD includes total intramural expenditure on R&D performed within a country, funded and from abroad but excludes payments for R&D performed abroad nationally. GERD tends to be under-represented in countries with a high % of SMEs and or with innovation in non-manufacturing sectors.
In a minor number of countries, micro enterprises with less than 10 employees where R&D activity is expected to be negligible are excluded from the R&D surveys. However, this has only a minor impact on the aggregated data.
The direct collection of R&D data through dedicated surveys has a distinct advantage in that the concepts and definitions used can align completely with those contained in the Frascati Manual. Administrative data sources (which may include both financial data from revenue agencies as well as other types of administrative sources, such as company records) may be used as another source of information for compilation of R&D data, if the concepts, definitions and coverage used by administrative data sources are close to those contained in the Frascati Manual sufficiently. The analysis of Gross Domestic Expenditures on R&D (GERD) published by Eurostat proves that the developed and rich countries dedicate the largest proportion of GDP to R&D. Unfortunately, Poland is almost at the end of the list. R&D data are used for estimation of capitalization of R&D expenditure in the national accounts.
Data on researchers and technicians in R&D are measured in both full-time equivalent and headcount but are shown in full-time equivalent only. The data are obtained through statistical surveys which are regularly conducted at national level covering R & D performing entities in the private and public sectors. This biennial national data collection shows information on enterprises’ product and process innovations as well as organizational and marketing innovations.
“Research and experimental development (R&D) comprise creative and systematic work undertaken in order to increase the stock of knowledge – including knowledge of humankind, culture and society – and to devise new applications of available knowledge “(Frascati Manual, 2015 edition, par 44). Domain comprises national statistics on R&D expenditure, R&D personnel and government budget appropriations or outlays on R&D (GBAORD). Data are collected in several occasions in a year and they consist of several breakdowns such as institutional R&D performing and funding sectors, types of costs and types of R&D, fields of science and economic activities.
In 2014, the total amount of expenditure on research and development activity (R&D) was 656.1 million BGN which was 25.8% more than the previous year. In 2015, the total amount of expenditure on research and development activity (R&D) was 847.2 million BGN which was 27.4% more than the previous year. In 2016, the total amount of expenditure on research and development activity (R&D) was 734.0 million BGN which was 13.7% less than the previous year. In 2017, the total amount of expenditure on research and development activity (R&D) was 760.2 million BGN, which was 3.5% more than the previous year.
R&D data can be collected directly through surveys, through administrative data sources, or by combination of the two. The direct collection of R&D data has a distinct advantage in that the concepts and definitions used can align completely with those contained in the Frascati Manual, though this may have some cost implications. Furthermore, R&D data are not collected on a regular basis in many developing countries and that not all sectors of performance (Business enterprise, Government, Higher education, and Private non-profit) are covered. In particular, the Business enterprise sector often goes uncovered. In 2012, the total amount of the expenditure on research and development (R&D) was 495.9 million BGN, which was by 15.5% more in comparison with the previous year.
Venture Capital Investment (VCI) is the subset of private equity which is intended for investments in listed companies and firms which develop new products and technologies. VCI serves as the early stage funding (seed and start-up), or it is used for expansion of a venture (later venture). Data from national R&D surveys based on the Frascati Manual, OECD,
Total intramural R&D expenditure (at current prices) (or gross domestic expenditure on R&D (GERD)) performed on the national/regional territory during a given year, in millions of euro and as a percentage of GDP. The indicator thus includes domestically performed R&D which is financed from abroad but excludes R&D funds paid abroad.
UTRGV and the National Center for Women in Information Technology (NCWIT) are collaborating to create a two-year plan to improve gender equality in computer science at the university. It is displayed as a matrix of performing and funding sectors often. GERD and the GERD matrix form the basis of international comparisons of R&D expenditures.