INTRAVENOUS AMINO ACIDS STIMULATE GASTRIC ACID SECRETION IN INFANTS
(3) Similar questions could apply to frequently feeding snakes and the linear dependence of intestinal maintenance on intestinal metabolism and SMR. Clearly the modest or wide regulation of GI performance for snakes is founded in a complexly integrated selected process. Once the histamine H 2 -receptors on the parietal cell are activated, acid secretion is started via intracellular cyclic AMP. This in turn activates the acid transporter (H + /K + -ATPase) on the luminal side of the parietal cell.
These numbers are converted to actual acid production in units of milliequivalents per hour (mEq/hr) in some cases. The stomach acid test is used to measure the amount of acid in the stomach.
Gastric juice is secreted in response to vagal stimulation, either directly by electrical impulses or indirectly by stimuli received through the senses. Ivan Petrovich Pavlov, the Russian physiologist, originally demonstrated this method of gastric secretion in a now-famous experiment with dogs. a thin, clear, virtually colorless acidic fluid secreted by the stomach glands and active in promoting digestion. The normal volume of the stomach fluid is 20 to 100 mL and the pH is acidic (1.5 to 3.5).
net result is K + -secretion from blood to the duct lumen. Twice-daily dosing of esomeprazole effectively inhibits acid secretion in CYP2C19 rapid metabolisers compared with twice-daily omeprazole, lansoprazole or rabeprazole.
We now believe the main source of this histamine to be the principal endocrine cell of the gastric body or corpus – the enterochromaffin-like (ECL) cell. The ECL cells are located in the lower part of the gastric glands mainly, well-positioned to deliver their histamine into the capillaries which flow past them and the parietal cells (Fig. 1). compared to WT, while pepsinogen secretion was unaffected. Genetic ablation of ClC-2 resulted in reduced gastric gland region, reduced parietal cell number, reduced H/K ATPase, reduced tubulovesicles and reduced stimulated acid secretion. To determine the effect of an intravenous amino acid infusion on gastric acid secretion we measured acid secretion in 7 enterally fed chronically ill infants (age 3-7 mo, weight 2-6 kg) requiring intravenous supplements.
The gastric phase is a period in which swallowed food activates gastric activity in the stomach. Chemical stimuli (i.e., partially digested proteins, caffeine) directly activate G cells (enteroendocrine cells) that are located in the pyloric region of the stomach to secrete gastrin; this in turn stimulates the gastric glands to secrete gastric juice. Neurogenic signals that initiate the cephalic phase of gastric secretion originate from the cerebral cortex, and in the appetite centers of the amygdala and hypothalamus. They are transmitted through the dorsal motor nuclei of the vagi, and through the vagus nerve to the stomach then.
In this scholarly study, we investigated the effects of various dosages of esomeprazole on inhibition of gastric acid secretion in healthy Japanese volunteers, by measuring gastric acid secretion stimulated with pentagastrin. At trough state, the inhibition rate of acid secretion was higher for esomeprazole 20 mg b significantly.i.d. compared with both esomeprazole 10 mg q.d.
Gastric acid inhibition rates in each subject after administration of esomeprazole 10 mg q.d., 20 mg q.d. and 20 mg b.i.d. are indicated. On the other hand, at trough state, before the morning dosing which corresponded to just, median gastric acid inhibition rates were 64.9% (IQR 59.1-76.7%), 84.2% (IQR 76.4-88.8%) and 99.6% (IQR 99.0-100.0%), for esomeprazole 10 mg q.d., 20 mg q.d. and 20 mg b.i.d. regimens, respectively (Fig. 1B).
The intestinal phase is not fully understood, because of a complex stimulatory and inhibitor process. Amino acids and small peptides that promote gastric acid secretion are infused into the circulation, however, at the same time chyme inhibits acid secretion. The secretion of gastric acid is an important inhibitor of gastrin release. If the pH of the antral contents falls below 2.5, gastrin is not released.
- This phase continues until the food has left the stomach.
- The study describes gastric acid secretory response to a rice-based and a wheat-based meal over a prolonged period of five hours and buffer content of the stomach in five normal and seven duodenal ulcer subjects from the rice-eating eastern Indian population.
The chemical action of free amino acids and peptides excites the liberation of gastrin from the antrum into the circulation. Thus, there are mechanical, chemical, and hormonal factors contributing to the gastric secretory response to eating. This phase continues until the food has left the stomach.
Gastric and intestinal acid-base secretion and electrophysiology
On the other hand, the effect of the dosing regimen of esomeprazole on gastric acid secretion in Japanese people has been insufficiently examined. We, therefore, assessed the relationship between dose and timing of esomeprazole administration and gastric acid inhibition in 11 healthy male Japanese volunteers by directly examining gastric acid secretion capacity. Esomeprazole, a proton pump inhibitor, has been used for treatment of GERD in Japan since 2011; namely, only little is known about its effect on gastric acid secretion in Japanese. Upon the completion of digestion, pythons severely downregulate gastric acid production, pancreatic enzyme secretion, intestinal nutrient uptake, hydrolase activity and base secretion (Secor and Diamond, 1995; Cox and Secor, 2008).
Some of the hormones that are released from the small intestine by products of digestion (especially fat), in particular secretin and glucagon, suppress acid secretion also. The release of histamine is the most important positive regulation mechanism of the secretion of gastric acid in the stomach. Its release is stimulated by acetylcholine and gastrin and inhibited by somatostatin.
These proton pumps are stored in intracellular vesicles and tubules, and are rapidly inserted into the cell membrane – the invaginated secretory canaliculus (Fig. 1) – so they can transport hydrogen ions out of the cell and into the gastric glands. The main messages that tell the stomach to secrete acid after a meal are the release of gastrin and acetylcholine. These messages are channelled via the ECL cells which release histamine then.
This gives the duodenum time to work on the chyme it has received before being loaded with more.
The cephalic phase of gastric secretion occurs in response to stimuli received by the senses-that is, taste, smell, sight, and sound. This phase of gastric secretion is entirely reflex in origin and is mediated by the vagus (10th cranial) nerve.