Puede amoxil causar gerd
In the economic sector of the H-E model, Regional Positive Mathematical Programming (RPMP) was used to study the effects of various scenarios (marketing network reform policies) on crop patterns. In the hydrologic sector of the H-E model, WEAP was used to analyze and simulate of water resources according to the different crop patterns (results obtained from economic sector). The results showed the network marketing reform leads to change in cropping pattern. The cultivated area of crops with high marketing margin was increased. Also, the cultivated area of alfalfa and cotton decreased in most scenarios.
We propose an institutional arrangement that distributes welfare in a river basin by maximizing the economic benefits of water use and then sharing these benefits in an equitable manner using a met hod developed through stakeholder involvement. Stochastic dual dynamic programming (SDDP) is one of the few methods available to solve multipurpose-multireservoir operation problems in a stochastic environment. This algorithm requires that the one-stage optimization problem be a convex program so that the efficient Benders decomposition scheme can be implemented to handle the large state-space that characterizes multireservoir operation problems. When working with hydropower systems, one usually assumes that the production of hydroelectricity is dominated by the release term and not by the head (storage) term to circumvent the nonlinearity of the hydropower production function.
This is compared with fullscale system-wide optimization through an Stochastic Dual Dynamic Programming algorithm to represent fully coordinated reservoir operation (upper bound). For our case study, results indicate that better coordination reduced spills and improved releases timing according to reservoirs characteristics and location, allowing overall gains between 3% and 8% in energy and 7.9% in revenues, with revenues mostly improved by coordination in dry years. Larger reservoirs presented the highest gains in absolute terms, while the smaller ones presented the highest relative increases. By indicating individual gains at each reservoir, valuable information is produced to support future negotiations and benefit sharing among different agents, being water agencies or power companies.
Arjoon et al. (2014) evaluated the longterm impacts of the GERD on the economic benefits of Ethiopia, Sudan, and Egypt and concluded that the GERD would increase the minimum annual economic benefits of the three countries from 4.9 to 5.6 billion US$, provided that Sudan fully uses its water share according to the 1959Nile Water Agreement (UN, 1964 and Ethiopia implements its planned irrigation schemes around Lake Tana. Arjoon et al. (2014) , applying a stochastic dual dynamic programming (SDDP) approach to assess the impact of the operation of the dam on the Eastern Nile economies, shows that water storage in the GERD would benefit downstream countries through improved irrigation and hydropower development and reduced hydrologic risks, particularly during dry years. Water resources development projects often involve multiple and conflict-ing objectives as well as stochastic hydrologic inputs. Multiobjective optimization tech-niques can be used to identify non-inferior solutions and to construct a trade-off rela-tionship between conflicting objectives. This paper presents a methodology for analyz-ing trade-offs and risks associated with large-scale water resource projects under hydro-logic uncertainty.
Even though there is no legal agreement on the sharing of Zambezi waters, an assessment of basin-wide economically efficient allocation policies will provide valuable information at a time where water managers and policy makers in the region are negotiating the establishment of a unified river basin institution, called the Zambezi Watercourse Commission (ZAMCOM). That institution would be responsible for, amongst other things, the design of allocation rules. In this study, basin-wide allocation policies are derived from a hydroeconomic model that considers the largest existing and planned hydraulic infrastructure and irrigation schemes in the basin. Our results illustrate that the economic value of water varies spatially, driven primarily by large changes in elevation and on the locations of existing or proposed dams. This observation may have implications for future decisions about the siting of expansions in irrigated agriculture.
The methodology is applied to the Eastern Nile River basin as a case study. The described technique not only ensures economic efficiency, but may also lead to more equitable solutions in the sharing of benefits in transboundary river basins because the definition of the sharing rule is not in question, as would be the case if existing methods, such as game theory, were applied, with their inherent definitions of fairness. Common pool resources, such as international river basins with multiple riparian states, are hard to manage efficiently and equitably.
Electrical Engineer Julio Hildebrand is part of the Lahmeyer team advising Sudanese Hydro Generation Company Ltd (SHGC) on the damâ€™s rehabilitation and uprating. Discover the project from Julioâ€™s perspective. Planning in the Blue Nile, Discussion Paper Series 13-05, Environment for Development, 2013. used a stochastic dual dynamic programming approach within a hydro-economic framework to optimize operations for the benefits of hydropower and agriculture pro- duction under various build-out scenarios.
Cooperative game theory concepts that address relative power of the riparian states in capturing incremental benefits from cooperation, such as the Core, the Shapley Value, and the Nash-Harsanyi (N-H) solution are compared under several scenarios, namely with and without water trade, and with and without existence of unidirectional externalities in the form of soil erosion and siltation impact. We find that the stability of Shapley and N-H benefits allocations are sensitive to the initial water rights allocation, which may explain the present caution of the basin states to be engaged in cooperation arrangements. We also find that when a Core exists it is very small, which indicates also a fragile basis for cooperation. This study examines management approaches for hydropower generation and irrigation and domestic water supply for the Tekeze-Atbara, a transboundary river between Ethiopia, Eritrea and Sudan, in above- and below-normal hydrologic conditions, considering current and future water demand scenarios.
Ethiopia also has ambitious plan to establish power trade relations with distant nations, including Egypt, South Africa, and even Yemen (Cuesta-FernÃ¡ndez 2015); however, to date infrastructure connections only reach Sudan. I am Julio Hildebrand, Electrical Engineer with MBA in Business Management, and member of the Electrical Engineering and Control Department at LI. During my career I have worked both in the electrical equipment industry and in the implementation of power generation projects, in a wide range of roles. This background gave me the experience to perform the consultancy activities comprised by my position, such as project development, ownerâ€™s engineering and project management.
The results of the hydrological model simulations (WEAP model) showed that the change in cropping pattern (due to marketing network reform) made increase water use in Neyshabur basin and increase pressure on groundwater. It seems the marketing reform could not reduce overdraft of water resources. Complementary policies appear to be necessary to gain desirable achievements from marketing network reform and reduce groundwater overdraft. Â© 2017, National Centre for Agrarian Sciences. All Rights Reserved.
The proposed methodology relies on the stochastic dual dynamic pro-gramming (SDDP) model to derive monthly or weekly operating rules for multipurpose multireservoir systems taking into account the stochasticity of the inflows, irrigation wa-ter withdrawals, minimum/maximum flow requirements for navigation, fishing and/or for ecological purposes. In SDDP, release decisions are chosen so as to minimize the op-erating costs of a hydrothermal electrical system.