Stomach and Duodenum

Coordinated contractions of the stomach are important for grinding and mixing ingested food with the gastric secretions. This ensures good mixing of stomach contents and also helps to filter out partially digested food to prevent large pieces from entering the duodenum. Lastly, partially digested food and liquids are carefully emptied from the stomach, through the pylorus, into the duodenum. These processes of secreting gastric juices, mixing food and gastric emptying are normally carefully regulated and involve the coordinated action of hormones, nerves, and muscles.

After the stomach has been filled with food from a meal, it stores the food for about 1-2 hours. During this time, the stomach continues the digestive process that began in the mouth and allows the intestines, pancreas, gallbladder, and liver to prepare to complete the digestive process. Inferior to the body is a funnel shaped region known as the pylorus.

Your stomach secretes hydrochloric acid, but the pH of your stomach isn’t necessarily the same as the pH of the acid. It is an interesting fact that many enzymes in the digestive system are initially produced in their inactive form.

The smooth muscles of the stomach produce contractions known as mixing waves that mix the boluses of food with gastric juice. This mixing leads to the production of the thick liquid known as chyme.

Stomach acid can also aggravate ulcers, making them more painful. Sometimes cells in the stomach lining are unable to make hydrochloric acid. Without enough acid, protein digestion in the stomach is difficult and bacterial overgrowth can occur. After being masticated, food travels down the esophagus to arrive in the stomach for the next step in the digestive process. This mainly involves the gastric juice that contains hydrochloric acid (HCl), which will serve to denature dietary proteins, activate pepsinogen into pepsin, and sterilize stomach content.

In an autoimmune disorder, the immune system mistakenly attacks the body’s own tissues. Some evidence suggests that medications that are designed to reduce acid production in the stomach may sometimes cause hypochlorhydria. Significant hypochlorhydria (low stomach acid) seems to be uncommon. It‘s more prevalent in elderly people than in younger ones, however.

Three to seven individual gastric glands empty their secretions into each gastric pit. Beneath the gastric mucosa is a thin layer of smooth muscle called the muscularis mucosae, and below this, in turn, is loose connective tissue, the submucosa, which attaches the gastric mucosa to the muscles in the walls of the stomach. The mucosa (mucous membrane) is the inner lining of the stomach. When the stomach is empty the mucosa has a ridged appearance.

These hormones engage in a wide range of functions, including stimulating appetite, encouraging the secretion of enzymes and gastric acid, and reminding the gall bladder to contract and empty. These hormones directly enter the blood, and eventually affect the function of other parts of the digestive system, including the liver and pancreas, and even your brain. gastric juice An acidic mixture of inorganic salts, hydrochloric acid, mucus, and pepsinogens secreted by gastric glands in the stomach lining. Of course, these systems don’t always work perfectly.

(3) Gastrin cells, also called G cells, are located throughout the antrum. These endocrine cells secrete the acid-stimulating hormone gastrin as a response to lowered acidity of the gastric contents when food enters the stomach and gastric distention. Gastrin then enters the bloodstream and is carried in the circulation to the mucosa of the body of the stomach, where it binds to receptor sites on the outer membrane of the parietal cells (described below). The gastrin-receptor complex that is formed triggers an energy-consuming reaction moderated by the presence of the enzyme ATPase, bound to the membrane that leads to the production and secretion of hydrogen ions in the parietal cells. (2) Zymogenic, or chief, cells are located predominantly in gastric glands in the body and fundic portions of the stomach.

Some cells in the stomach lining produce protective mucus, and when they are damaged, less mucus is produced, leaving the stomach inadequately protected against digestive acids. Exposure to digestive acids causes more inflammation and irritation, potentially resulting in erosion of the stomach lining and, ultimately, ulcers. In addition to treating or removing the underlying cause of the inflammation, medication is used to neutralize the stomach acid and reduce the amount of acid produced to help the stomach heal. If for some reason the mucus layer is breached, the epithelial cells are exposed to concentrated stomach acid and the digestive enzymes contained within the gastric juices.

The stomach is a muscular, J-shaped organ in the upper part of the abdomen. It is part of the digestive system, which extends from the mouth to the anus. The size of the stomach varies from person to person, and from meal to meal. One of the digestive glands secretes enzymes that are capable of digesting carbohydrates, lipids and proteins.

When a person eats food with lots of sugar, like candy, the acid breaks it down pretty quickly. Foods that are higher in protein take much longer. That barbequed pork you ate for dinner a few nights back? Your stomach acid may have taken up to four hours to break it down. That’s why eating protein keeps you full longer than eating sugar.

It is so concentrated that one drop would eat right through a piece of wood. The g-cells produce gastrin, which is a hormone that helps the the parietal cells to produce hydrochloric acid. In some individuals, due to impairments in blood supply to the stomach, or to overproduction of acid, this defense system does not work as well as it should.

If the stomach doesn’t have any food in it, the acidic juice can accumulate and reach or splash up and contact the unprotected upper part of the stomach, burning the squamous lining and causing stomach ulcers. The horse’s stomach is separated into upper and lower parts. The lower portion is lined by glandular mucosa and is where the acid is produced.

the stomach lining is protected from the stomach acid by

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